|Title||In Vivo and In Vitro Potency of Polyphosphazene Immunoadjuvants with Hepatitis C Virus Antigen and the Role of Their Supramolecular Assembly.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Andrianov, AK, Marin, A, Wang, R, Chowdhury, A, Agnihotri, P, Yunus, AS, Pierce, BG, Mariuzza, RA, Fuerst, TR|
|Date Published||2020 Jun 12|
Two well-defined synthetic polyphosphazene immunoadjuvants, PCPP and PCEP, were studied for their ability to potentiate immune response to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein antigen in vivo. We report that PCEP induced significantly higher serum neutralization and HCV specific IgG titers in mice compared to other adjuvants used in the study: PCPP, Alum, and Addavax. PCEP also shifted the response toward desirable balanced Th1/Th2 immunity, as evaluated by antibody isotype ratio (IgG2a/IgG1). The in vivo results were analyzed in the context of antigen-adjuvant molecular interactions in the system and in vitro immunostimulatory activity of formulations. Asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis showed that both PCPP and PCEP spontaneously self-assemble with the E2 glycoprotein with the formation of multimeric water-soluble complexes, which demonstrates the role of polyphosphazene macromolecules as vaccine delivery vehicles. Intrinsic in vitro immunostimulatory activity of polyphosphazene adjuvants, which was assessed using a mouse macrophage cell line, revealed comparable activities of both polymers and did not provide an explanation of their in vivo performance. However, PCEP complexes with E2 displayed greater stability against agglomeration and improved in vitro immunostimulatory activity compared to those of PCPP, which is in line with superior in vivo performance of PCEP. The results emphasize the importance of often neglected antigen-polyphosphazene self-assembly mechanisms in formulations, which can provide important insights on their in vivo behavior and facilitate the establishment of structure-activity relationship for this important class of immunoadjuvants.
|Alternate Journal||Mol. Pharm.|
|Grant List||R01 AI132213 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States|