Examination of the calcium-modulated protein S100 alpha and its target proteins in adult and developing skeletal muscle.

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TitleExamination of the calcium-modulated protein S100 alpha and its target proteins in adult and developing skeletal muscle.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1991
AuthorsZimmer, DB
JournalCell Motil Cytoskeleton
Date Published1991
KeywordsAging, Animals, Blotting, Northern, Calcium, Immunoenzyme Techniques, Muscle Development, Muscle Proteins, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Muscles, Myocardium, Radioimmunoassay, Rats, S100 Proteins, Subcellular Fractions

In this study radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemistry, Northern blot analysis, and a gel overlay technique have been used to examine the level, subcellular distribution, and potential target proteins of the S100 family of calcium-modulated proteins in adult and developing rat skeletal muscles. Adult rat muscles contained high levels of S100 proteins but the particular form present was dependent on the muscle type: cardiac muscle contained exclusively S100 alpha, slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers contained predominantly S100 alpha, vascular smooth muscle contained both S100 alpha and S100 beta, and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers contained low but detectable levels of S100 alpha and S100 beta. While the distribution of S100 mRNAs paralled the protein distribution in all muscles there was no direct correlation between the mRNA and protein levels in different muscle types, suggesting that S100 protein expression is differentially regulated in different muscle types. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cellular distribution of S100 proteins in adult skeletal muscles revealed that S100 alpha staining was associated with muscle cells, while S100 beta staining was associated with nonmuscle cells. Radioimmunoassays of developing rat skeletal muscles demonstrated that all developing muscles contained low levels of S100 alpha at postnatal day 1 and that as development proceeded the S100 alpha levels increased. In contrast to adult muscle S100 alpha expression was confined to fast-twitch fibers in developing skeletal muscle until postnatal day 21. At postnatal day 1, developing contractile elements were S100 alpha positive, but no staining periodicity was detectable. At postnatal day 21, S100 alpha exhibited the same subcellular localization as seen in the adult: colocalization with the A-band and/or longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum. Comparison of the S100 alpha-binding protein profiles in fast- and slow-twitch fibers of various species revealed few, if any, species- or fiber type-specific S100 binding proteins. Isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum fractions and myofibrils contained multiple S100 alpha-binding proteins. The colocalization of S100 alpha and S100 alpha-binding proteins with the contractile apparatus and sarcoplasmic reticulum suggest that S100 alpha may regulate excitation and/or contraction in slow-twitch fibers.

Alternate JournalCell Motil. Cytoskeleton
PubMed ID1802419