The engineering of binding affinity at metal ion binding sites for the stabilization of proteins: subtilisin as a test case.

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TitleThe engineering of binding affinity at metal ion binding sites for the stabilization of proteins: subtilisin as a test case.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1988
AuthorsPantoliano, MW, Whitlow, M, Wood, JF, Rollence, ML, Finzel, BC, Gilliland, GL, Poulos, TL, Bryan, PN
JournalBiochemistry
Volume27
Issue22
Pagination8311-7
Date Published1988 Nov 1
ISSN0006-2960
KeywordsBinding Sites, Calcium, Electrochemistry, Metals, Models, Molecular, Molecular Structure, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Subtilisins, Thermodynamics, X-Ray Diffraction
Abstract

A weak Ca2+ binding site in the bacterial serine protease subtilisin BPN' (EC 3.4.21.14) was chosen as a model to explore the feasibility of stabilizing a protein by increasing the binding affinity at a metal ion binding site. The existence of this weak Ca2+ binding site was first discovered through a study of the rate of thermal inactivation of wild-type subtilisin BPN' at 65 degrees C as a function of the free [Ca2+]. Increasing the [Ca2+] in the range 0.10-100 mM caused a 100-fold decrease in the rate of thermal inactivation. The data were found to closely fit a theoretical titration curve for a single Ca2+ specific binding site with an apparent log Ka = 1.49. A series of refined X-ray crystal structures (R less than or equal to 0.15, 1.7 A) of subtilisin in the presence of 0.0, 25.0, and 40.0 mM CaCl2 has allowed a detailed structural characterization of this Ca2+ binding site. Negatively charged side chains were introduced in the vicinity of the bound Ca2+ by changing Pro 172 and Gly 131 to Asp residues through site-directed and random mutagenesis techniques, respectively. These changes were found to increase the affinity of the Ca2+ binding site by 3.4- and 2-fold, respectively, when compared with the wild-type protein (ionic strength = 0.10). X-ray studies of these new variants of subtilisin revealed the carboxylate side chains to be 6.8 and 13.2 A, respectively, from the bound Ca2+. These distances and the degree of enhanced binding are consistent with simple electrostatic theory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Alternate JournalBiochemistry
PubMed ID3072018