Comparative molecular model building of two serine proteinases from cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

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TitleComparative molecular model building of two serine proteinases from cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1988
AuthorsMurphy, ME, Moult, J, Bleackley, RC, Gershenfeld, H, Weissman, IL, James, MN
Date Published1988
KeywordsAmino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Clone Cells, Computer Graphics, DNA, Energy Transfer, Killer Cells, Natural, Models, Molecular, Molecular Sequence Data, Protein Conformation, Serine Endopeptidases

Two genes that are expressed when precursor cytotoxic T lymphocytes are transformed to T killer cells have been cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences, coding for cytotoxic cell protease 1 (CCP1) and Hannuka factor (HF) are highly homologous to members of the serine proteinase family. Comparative molecular model building using the known three-dimensional structures and the derived amino acid sequences of the lymphocyte enzymes has provided useful structural information, especially in predicting the conformations of the substrate binding sites. In applying this modelling procedure, we used the X-ray structures of four serine proteinases to provide a structurally based sequence alignment: alpha-chymotrypsin (CHT), bovine trypsin (BT), Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT), and rat mast cell protease 2 (RMCP2). The root mean square differences in alpha-carbon atom positions among these four structures when compared in a pairwise fashion range from 0.79 to 0.97 A for structurally equivalent residues. The sequences of the two lymphocyte enzymes were then aligned to these proteinases using chemical criteria and the superimposed X-ray structures as guides. The alignment showed that the sequence of CCP1 was most similar to RMCP2, whereas HF has regions of homology with both RMCP2 and BT. With RMCP2 as a template for CCP1 and the two enzymes RMCP2 and BT as templates for HF, the molecular models were constructed. Intramolecular steric clashes that resulted from the replacement of amino acid side chains of the templates by the aligned residues of CCP1 and HF were relieved by adjustment of the side chain conformational angles in an interactive computer graphics device. This process was followed by energy minimization of the enzyme model to optimize the stereochemical geometry and to relieve any remaining unacceptably close nonbonded contacts. The resulting model of CCP1 has an arginine residue at position 226 in the specificity pocket, thereby predicting a substrate preference for P1 aspartate or glutamate residues. The model also predicts favorable binding for a small hydrophobic residue at the P2 position of the substrate. The primary specificity pocket of HF resembles that of BT and therefore predicts a lysine or arginine preference for the P1 residue. The arginine at position 99 in the model of HF suggests a preference for aspartate or glutamate side chains in the P2 position of the substrate. Both CCP1 and HF have a free cysteine in the segment of polypeptide 88 to 93.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Alternate JournalProteins
PubMed ID3237717