|Title||Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) is a potent enhancer of mixed Th1/Th2 immune responses in mice immunized with influenza virus antigens.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Mutwiri, G, Benjamin, P, Soita, H, Townsend, H, Yost, R, Roberts, B, Andrianov, AK, Babiuk, LA|
|Date Published||2007 Jan 26|
|Keywords||Adjuvants, Immunologic, Alum Compounds, Animals, Antibodies, Viral, Antibody Specificity, Antigens, Viral, Cytokines, Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Immunity, Cellular, Immunoglobulin G, Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype, Influenza Vaccines, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Neutralization Tests, Phenylpropionates, Polymers, Serum Albumin, Bovine, Spleen, Th1 Cells, Th2 Cells|
We investigated the ability of a novel polyphosphazene polyelectrolyte, poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) to enhance antigen-specific immune responses. BALB/c mice were immunized once subcutaneously with either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or influenza virus X:31 antigen alone, or in combination with PCEP, or either of the adjuvants poly[di(sodium carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] (PCPP) and alum. Both PCEP and PCPP significantly enhanced serum antigen-specific total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers, and these responses were highest in PCEP-immunized mice. Alum induced only a modest enhancement of antibody responses. Reducing the dose of X:31 antigen by 25-fold had no effect on antibody responses in mice immunized with PCPP and PCEP, but resulted in reduced titers in those immunized with alum. Analysis of X:31 antigen-specific cytokines revealed that alum and PCPP were associated with a predominantly IL-4 response. In contrast, PCEP was associated with production of both IFNgamma and IL-4. We conclude that PCEP is a potent enhancer of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 immune responses and is a promising adjuvant for vaccine applications.