|Title||Dual and Opposing Roles of Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Defense-Associated Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism in Arabidopsis.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Ma, X, Wang, W-M, Bittner, F, Schmidt, N, Berkey, R, Zhang, L, King, H, Zhang, Y, Feng, J, Wen, Y, Tan, L, Li, Y, Zhang, Q, Deng, Z, Xiong, X, Xiao, S|
|Date Published||2016 May 5|
While plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for stress signaling and pathogen defense, they need to remove excessive ROS induced during stress responses in order to minimize oxidative damage. How can plants fine-tune this balance and meet such conflicting needs? Here, we show that XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE 1 (XDH1) in Arabidopsis thaliana appears to play spatially opposite roles to serve this purpose. Through a large-scale genetic screen, we identified three missense mutations in XDH1 that impair XDH1's enzymatic functions and consequently affect the powdery mildew resistance mediated by RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8 (RPW8) in epidermal cells and formation of xanthine-enriched autofluorescent objects in mesophyll cells. Further analyses revealed that in leaf epidermal cells, XDH1 likely functions as an oxidase, along with the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF, to generate superoxide, which is dismutated into H2O2. The resulting enrichment of H2O2 in the fungal haustorial complex within infected epidermal cells helps to constrain the haustorium, thereby contributing to RPW8-dependent and RPW8-independent powdery mildew resistance. By contrast, in leaf mesophyll cells, XDH1 carries out xanthine dehydrogenase activity to produce uric acid in local and systemic tissues to scavenge H2O2 from stressed chloroplasts, thereby protecting plants from stress-induced oxidative damage. Thus, XDH1 plays spatially specified dual and opposing roles in modulation of ROS metabolism during defense responses in Arabidopsis.
|Alternate Journal||Plant Cell|