Reliable clinical serum analysis with reusable electrochemical sensor: Toward point-of-care measurement of the antipsychotic medication clozapine.

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TitleReliable clinical serum analysis with reusable electrochemical sensor: Toward point-of-care measurement of the antipsychotic medication clozapine.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsKang, M, Kim, E, Winkler, TE, Banis, G, Liu, Y, Kitchen, CA, Kelly, DL, Ghodssi, R, Payne, GF
JournalBiosens Bioelectron
Volume95
Pagination55-59
Date Published2017 Apr 12
ISSN1873-4235
Abstract

Clozapine is one of the most promising medications for managing schizophrenia but it is under-utilized because of the challenges of maintaining serum levels in a safe therapeutic range (1-3μM). Timely measurement of serum clozapine levels has been identified as a barrier to the broader use of clozapine, which is however challenging due to the complexity of serum samples. We demonstrate a robust and reusable electrochemical sensor with graphene-chitosan composite for rapidly measuring serum levels of clozapine. Our electrochemical measurements in clinical serum from clozapine-treated and clozapine-untreated schizophrenia groups are well correlated to centralized laboratory analysis for the readily detected uric acid and for the clozapine which is present at 100-fold lower concentration. The benefits of our electrochemical measurement approach for serum clozapine monitoring are: (i) rapid measurement (≈20min) without serum pretreatment; (ii) appropriate selectivity and sensitivity (limit of detection 0.7μM); (iii) reusability of an electrode over several weeks; and (iv) rapid reliability testing to detect common error-causing problems. This simple and rapid electrochemical approach for serum clozapine measurements should provide clinicians with the timely point-of-care information required to adjust dosages and personalize the management of schizophrenia.

DOI10.1016/j.bios.2017.04.008
Alternate JournalBiosens Bioelectron
PubMed ID28412661
Grant ListR56 MH105571 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States