|Title||Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2): Bioprocess Development, Physicochemical, Biochemical, and Biological Characterization of Highly Expressed Recombinant Protein.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Chowdhury, A, Brinson, RG, Wei, B, Stetler-Stevenson, WG|
|Date Published||2017 Dec 12|
|Keywords||Animals, Cell Proliferation, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Mice, Neoplasms, Protein Engineering, Protein Folding, Recombinant Proteins, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2|
Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-2 (TIMP-2) is a secreted 21 kDa multifunctional protein first described as an endogenous inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that prevents breakdown of the extracellular matrix often observed in chronic diseases. TIMP-2 diminishes the level of growth factor-mediated cell proliferation in vitro, as well as neoangiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo independent of its MMP inhibitory activity. These physiological properties make TIMP-2 an excellent candidate for further preclinical development as a biologic therapy of cancer. Here we present a straightforward bioprocessing methodology that yields >35 mg/L recombinant human TIMP-2 6XHis-tagged protein (rhTIMP-2) from suspension cultures of HEK-293-F cells. Enhanced rhTIMP-2-6XHis yields were achieved by optimization of both TIMP-2 cDNA codon sequence and cell culture conditions. Using a two-step chromatographic process, we achieved >95% purity with minimal processing losses. Purified rhTIMP-2-6XHis was free of mouse antigen contamination. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated a well-folded rhTIMP-2-6XHis that is highly stable and refractory to pH changes. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance of full length rhTIMP-2-6XHis also indicated a monodisperse, well-folded protein preparation. Purified rhTIMP-2-6XHis inhibited MMP-2 enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent fashion with an IC of ∼1.4 nM. Pretreatment of A549 lung cancer and JygMC(A) triple-negative breast cancer cells with rhTIMP-2-6XHis in low-nanomolar amounts inhibited EGF-induced proliferation to basal (unstimulated) levels. This study therefore not only offers a robust bioprocess methodology for rhTIMP-2 production but also characterizes critical physicochemical and biological attributes that are useful for monitoring quality control of the production process.