|Title||Identification and characterization of fragment binding sites for allosteric ligand design using the site identification by ligand competitive saturation hotspots approach (SILCS-Hotspots).|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Mackerell, AD, Jo, S, Lakkaraju, SKaushik, Lind, C, Yu, W|
|Journal||Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj|
|Date Published||2020 Jan 03|
BACKGROUND: Fragment-based ligand design is used for the development of novel ligands that target macromolecules, most notably proteins. Central to its success is the identification of fragment binding sites that are spatially adjacent such that fragments occupying those sites may be linked to create drug-like ligands. Current experimental and computational approaches that address this problem typically identify only a limited number of sites as well as use a limited number of fragment types.
METHODS: The site-identification by ligand competitive saturation (SILCS) approach is extended to the identification of fragment bindings sites, with the method termed SILCS-Hotspots. The approach involves precomputation of the SILCS FragMaps following which the identification of Hotspots, performed by identifying of all possible fragment binding sites on the full 3D structure of the protein followed by spatial clustering.
RESULTS: The SILCS-Hotspots approach identifies a large number of sites on the target protein, including many sites not accessible in experimental structures due to low binding affinities and binding sites on the protein interior. The identified sites are shown to recapitulate the location of known drug-like molecules in both allosteric and orthosteric binding sites on seven proteins including the androgen receptor, the CDK2 and Erk5 kinases, PTP1B phosphatase and three GPCRs; the β2-adrenergic, GPR40 fatty-acid binding and M2-muscarinic receptors. Analysis indicates the importance of considering all possible fragment binding sites, and not just those accessible to experimental methods, when identifying novel binding sites and performing ligand design versus just considering the most favorable sites. The approach is shown to identify a larger number of known binding sites of drug-like molecules versus the commonly used FTMap and Fpocket methods.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The present results indicate the potential utility of the SILCS-Hotspots approach for fragment-based rational design of ligands, including allosteric modulators.
|Alternate Journal||Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj|